Bảo Vệ Quyền Sở Hữu Trí Tuệ của Doanh Nghiệp Trong Quan Hệ Lao Động

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Vào một ngày đẹp trời, một công ty sản xuất đồ chơi nổi tiếng bỗng phát hiện trên thị trường xuất hiện một mẫu đồ chơi giống hệt sản phẩm mà họ sẽ bày bán trong vài ngày tới. Đây là mẫu đồ chơi dự kiến sẽ thu về khoản lợi nhuận lớn vì sự độc đáo và hiện đại của nó. Để phát triển sản phẩm, công ty đã huy động đội ngũ kỹ thuật viên trình độ cao ngày đêm thiết kế và ứng dụng những công nghệ tiên tiến nhất. Bên cạnh đó, công ty cũng đã tiêu tốn ngân sách “khủng” cho chiến dịch tiếp thị và truyền thông để quảng bá mẫu đồ chơi này kèm theo lời hứa hẹn “sản phẩm mới sẽ được tiết lộ ở phút cuối”. Vậy mà “sản phẩm” ấy đã bị một trong những đối thủ cạnh tranh đưa vào sản xuất và đưa ra thị trường trước, ngay sát những “phút cuối” một cách ngoạn mục, hoàn hảo và đầy bất ngờ…

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Không cần phải là người trong giới kinh doanh thì cũng hiếm ai lại ngờ nghệch coi sự kiện ấy là “sự trùng hợp ngẫu nhiên”. Tất nhiên, hệ quả chắc chắn phát sinh từ sự can thiệp của con người, mà cụ thể trong trường hợp nêu trên là người lao động của công ty sản xuất đồ chơi, người đã bị mua chuộc để bán cho đối thủ cạnh tranh toàn bộ thiết kế bên ngoài và thiết kế kỹ thuật của sản phẩm mới với một mức giá “rất hời” cho bên mua. Nếu sau khi điều tra kỹ càng, doanh nghiệp có thể “chỉ mặt điểm tên” được người lao động (“NLĐ”) vi phạm thì doanh nghiệp có thể làm gì? Quay trở lại thí dụ trên, việc NLĐ bán thiết kế kỹ thuật của sản phẩm cho công ty là đối thủ cạnh tranh của doanh nghiệp có thể bị xem là hành vi tiết lộ bí mật kinh doanh của người sử dụng lao động (“NSDLĐ”) – là một trong những vi phạm nghiêm trọng của NLĐ mà NSDLĐ có thể áp dụng hình thức kỷ luật sa thải đối với NLĐ vi phạm theo quy định của Bộ luật lao động hiện hành. Tuy nhiên, trong thời gian tới khi Bộ luật lao động 2012 có hiệu lực (ngày 01/5/2013) việc bán thiết kế bên ngoài của sản phẩm có thể bị xem là một trong những hành vi xâm phạm quyền tác giả – một trong những hành vi vi phạm điển hình về quyền sở hữu trí tuệ (“QSHTT”) đã được Bộ luật lao động 2012 bổ sung thêm vào nhóm các vi phạm nghiêm trọng của NLĐ mà NSDLĐ được áp dụng hình thức kỷ luật sa thải khi xảy ra vi phạm.[1] Trên đây chỉ là một thí dụ về việc người lao động xâm phạm một đối tượng được bảo hộ QSHTT của NSDLĐ. Vậy hành vi xâm phạm QSHTT của NLĐ trong doanh nghiệp bao gồm những hành vi vi phạm nào mà lại nghiêm trọng đến mức nếu vi phạm thì NLĐ sẽ bị sa thải?

copyrights-2QSHTT của các tổ chức và cá nhân nói chung và của NSDLĐ nói riêng được quy định trong Luật sở hữu trí tuệ là quyền đối với tài sản trí tuệ bao gồm bốn nhóm quyền sau: (i) quyền tác giả; (ii) quyền liên quan đến quyền tác giả; (iii) quyền sở hữu công nghiệp; và (iv) quyền đối với giống cây trồng.

Nhìn chung, quyền tác giả được hiểu là quyền của tổ chức, cá nhân đối với tác phẩm do mình sáng tạo hoặc sở hữu. Thí dụ như doanh nghiệp máy tính sản xuất các phần mềm chuyên dụng thì có quyền đứng tên chủ sở hữu và bán bản quyền hoặc cho thuê phần mềm đó,  hoặc đối với các công ty kiến trúc có các bản vẽ thiết kế thì được bán lại thiết kế đó cho các đơn vị muốn sử dụng…Quyền liên quan đến quyền tác giả là quyền của tổ chức, cá nhân đối với cuộc biểu diễn, bản ghi âm, ghi hình, chương trình phát sóng, tín hiệu vệ tinh mang chương trình được mã hóa. Thí dụ: các công ty truyền thông có quyền bán các chương trình biểu diễn mà họ tổ chức dưới dạng đĩa ghi âm, ghi hình hay các doanh nghiệp chuyên kinh doanh các chương trình phát sóng được thu tiền cước phí sử dụng dịch vụ của tổ chức, cá nhân xem các chương trình mà họ cung cấp…

Bên cạnh đó, quyền sở hữu công nghiệp là quyền của tổ chức, cá nhân đối với sáng chế, kiểu dáng công nghiệp, thiết kế bố trí mạch tích hợp bán dẫn, nhãn hiệu, tên thương mại, chỉ dẫn địa lý, bí mật kinh doanh do mình sáng tạo ra hoặc sở hữu và quyền chống cạnh tranh không lành mạnh. Trong các đối tượng được bảo hộ quyền sở hữu công nghiệp thì quyền sở hữu công nghiệp đối với sáng chế, kiểu dáng công nghiệp, thiết kế bố trí mạch tích hợp bán dẫn, nhãn hiệu, chỉ dẫn địa lý chỉ được xác lập khi có văn bằng bảo hộ của cơ quan quản lý nhà nước có thẩm quyền (cụ thể tại Việt Nam là Cục Sở hữu trí tuệ), hoặc được công nhận bảo hộ thông qua hệ thống đăng ký quốc tế (như đối với nhãn hiệu).

Quyền thứ tư là quyền đối với giống cây trồng được hiểu là quyền của tổ chức, cá nhân đối với giống cây trồng mới do mình chọn tạo hoặc phát hiện và phát triển hoặc được hưởng quyền sở hữu. Quyền đối với giống cây trồng  được xác lập trên cơ sở quyết định cấp Bằng bảo hộ giống cây trồng của cơ quan nhà nước có thẩm quyền về SHTT.

Mỗi nhóm đối tượng thuộc QSHTT nêu trên đều được Luật sở hữu trí tuệ quy định khá chi tiết về các hành vi xâm phạm để doanh nghiệp có thể nhận diện mỗi khi xảy ra vi phạm có nguy cơ ảnh hưởng tới lợi ích của doanh nghiệp. Tuy nhiên, nếu đặt trong mối quan hệ làm công – ăn lương giữa NLĐ và NSDLĐ thì dường như các hành vi vi phạm của NLĐ đối với đến sự  QSHTT của NSDLĐ chủ yếu tập trung vào các nhóm QSHTT về quyền tác giả, quyền có liên quan đến quyền tác giả và bí mật kinh doanh – một trong những đối tượng được bảo hộ quyền sở hữu công nghiệp. Bởi vì pháp luật không đặt ra yêu cầu đăng ký đối với các đối tượng này, do đó, việc áp dụng các biện pháp  “giữ gìn”, bảo mật đối với các đối tượng nêu trên là một trong những yếu tố cốt lõi trong xác lập và khai thác quyền SHCN của các đối tượng này trong hoạt động kinh doanh của doanh nghiệp, và cũng chính ở vị trí là NLĐ, trong một số trường hợp, họ có điều kiện tiếp cận hoặc có khả năng sao chép hoặc tiết lộ một cách bất hợp pháp các đối tượng này ra bên ngoài, các đối tượng vốn dĩ thuộc quyền SHCN của NSDLĐ.  Có thể nói, ảnh hưởng từ sự vi phạm QSHTT của NLĐ đối với doanh nghiệp là khôn lường bởi vì đối với nhiều doanh nghiệp, QSHTT là tài sản có giá trị nhất trong doanh nghiệp, quyết định sự tồn tại hay chấm dứt hoạt động của doanh nghiệp. Mặc dù khi NLĐ có hành vi xâm phạm QSHTT của doanh nghiệp thì NSDLĐ được áp dụng hình thức sa thải đối với NLĐ. Tuy nhiên, sa thải dường như chỉ là một cách thức xử lý “đặng chẳng đừng” của NSDLĐ chứ không phải là một chiến lược có thể bảo vệ lợi ích lâu dài của doanh nghiệp. Bởi vì, có những trường hợpsau khi sa thải NLĐ, doanh nghiệp cũng phải chấm dứt hoạt động ngay sau đó khi toàn bộ giá trị tài sản của doanh nghiệp là QSHTT đã bị cung cấp cho đối thủ cạnh tranh trực tiếp của mình. Vậy doanh nghiệp cần làm gì để bảo vệ QSHTT của mình trước nguy cơ bị NLĐ xâm phạm?

Thứ nhất là doanh nghiệp cần thực hiện các thủ tục xác lập QSHTT đối với các đối tượng được bảo hộ theo quy định của Luật sở hữu trí tuệ trong thời gian càng sớm càng tốt. Thí dụ như quyền sở hữu công nghiệp đối với kiểu dáng công nghiệp được xác lập trên cơ sở quyết định cấp văn bằng bảo hộ của cơ quan nhà nước. Như vậy, nếu doanh nghiệp hoạt động kinh doanh trong lĩnh vực sản xuất các hàng hóa có thiết kế riêng biệt như ô tô, xe máy thì nên đăng ký xác lập ngay quyền sở hữu công nghiệp đối với kiểu dáng các sản phẩm mới mà công ty nghiên cứu, phát triển được. Điều này giúp tránh nguy cơ kiểu dáng sản phẩm chưa kịp đi đăng ký bảo hộ đã bị NLĐ cung cấp cho đối thủ cạnh tranh của doanh nghiệp, khiến cho doanh nghiệpkhông những không được bảo vệ quyền đối với sản phẩm do chính mình tạo ra lại vừa bị tổn thất nặng nề do bị đối thủ cạnh tranh “nẫng tay trên”.

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Thứ hai là doanh nghiệp cần ký kết các hợp đồng/thỏa thuận với NLĐ về xác định quyền sở hữu đối với các đối tượng của QSHTT ngay từ khi tuyển dụng lao động. Theo đó,  các hợp đồng này cần phải xác định rõ ràng  rằng mọi đối tượng sở hữu trí tuệ mà NLĐ tạo lập trong thời gian làm việc cho NSDLĐ, liên quan trực tiếp đến công việc đang làm  là tài sản của doanh nghiệp và doanh nghiệp là chủ sở hữu của các tài sản SHTT mà NLĐ sáng tạo ra trong thời gian làm việc cho doanh nghiệp và thỏa thuận đó có giá trị ràng buộc ngay cả khi NLĐ không còn làm việc cho doanh nghiệp nữa.

Thứ ba là doanh nghiệp cần ký kết các hợp đồng bảo mật với NLĐ mà trong đó xác định rõ đâu là bí mật kinh doanh – là đối tượng được bảo hộ quyền sở hữu công nghiệp của doanh nghiệp và các thông tin bảo mật khác mà theo đó NLĐ trong doanh nghiệp bị cấm tiết lộ hoặc sử dụng, trừ khi sử dụng trong công việc tại doanh nghiệp. Tiết lộ bí mật kinh doanh là một trong những vi phạm nghiêm trọng mà NLĐ có thể bị xử lý kỷ luật sa thải theo quy định của Bộ luật lao động hiện hành và Bộ luật lao động 2012. Vì vậy, việc quy định rõ ràng hệ quả của việc vi phạm thỏa thuận này là một hình thức cảnh báo khôn ngoan mà lại thiết thực của doanh nghiệp. Bên cạnh đó, doanh nghiệp có thể ký kết thỏa thuận dân sự với NLĐ về yêu cầu trách nhiệm bồi thường thiệt hại của NLĐ khi có các hành vi tiết lộ bí mật kinh doanh của doanh nghiệp, đặc biệt là bí mật kinh doanh trong và sau thời gian làm việc cho doanh nghiệp. Thỏa thuận này sẽ là cơ sở yêu cầu NLĐ phải chịu trách nhiệm trước pháp luật đối với hậu quả doanh nghiệp phải gánh chịu do hành vi tiết lộ bí mật của NLĐ gây ra. Thỏa thuận này còn có tác dụng ràng buộc và “cảnh báo” đối với NLĐ ngay cả khi họ không còn làm việc tại doanh nghiệp – khoảng thời gian mà các thỏa thuận lao động giữa NSDLĐ và NLĐ thực tế khó có thể tiếp tục phát huy hiệu lực.

Thứ thư là doanh nghiệp nên xây dựng các quy định/chính sách về liên lạc bằng các phương thức điện tử trong nội bộ của mình. Theo đó, doanh nghiệp xác định rõ ràng là toàn bộ các thông tin dữ liệu, bao gồm toàn bộ thư điện tử, dữ liệu… lưu trên ổ cứng máy tính là tài sản của doanh nghiệp và doanh nghiệp có toàn quyền kiểm soát, đánh giá mà không loại trừ bất kỳ NLĐ nào. Đồng thời quy định/chính sách này cũng yêu cầu NLĐ phải tuân thủ và chủ động hợp tác để cho doanh nghiệp truy xuất và kiểm soát các thiết bị này bất kỳ lúc nào nếu cần thiết… Chính sách này sẽ giúp doanh nghiệp bảo vệ các thông tin tài liệu dưới dạng dữ liệu điện tử, phần nào ngăn ngừa người lao động có ý định chuyển tải thông tin là tài sản được bảo hộ QSHTT của doanh nghiệp qua các phương thức điện tử (như copy từ máy tính sang các thiết bị lưu trữ khác hoặc chuyển cho các bên thứ ba…).

            Giải pháp cuối cùng mà doanh nghiệp nên lưu ý là kể từ khi Bộ luật lao động 2012 có hiệu lực (ngày 01/5/2013) thì xâm phạm quyền sở hữu trí tuệ của NSDLĐ là một trong những vi phạm của NLĐ mà doanh nghiệp có quyền áp dụng hình thức kỷ luật sa thải.  Vì vậy, ngay sau khi Bộ luật mới có hiệu lực doanh nghiệp nên quy định bổ sung thêm hành vi này là vi phạm bị áp dụng hình thức kỷ luật sa thải trong nội quy lao động đã đăng ký. Doanh nghiệp cũng cần lưu ý là Bộ luật lao động 2012 chỉ cho phép doanh nghiệp được sa thải NLĐ khi họ xâm phạm QSHTT của NSDLĐ và vi phạm ấy đã được quy định trong nội quy lao động đã được đăng ký của doanh nghiệp.[2]

Tham khảo thêm các doanh nghiệp ở nước ngoài thì ngoài những giải pháp nêu trên còn có một thỏa thuận mà doanh nghiệp thường ký với NLĐ để bảo vệ QSHTT của doanh nghiệp là thỏa thuận chống cạnh tranh. Trong thỏa thuận này NSDLĐ yêu cầu NLĐ không được làm việc cho đối thủ cạnh tranh của doanh nghiệp trong suốt và sau khi làm việc cho doanh nghiệp trong một khoảng thời gian nhất định. Tuy nhiên, khi áp dụng tại Việt Nam thì quy định này chỉ mang tính nhắc nhở nhiều hơn là bắt buộc thực hiện bởi vì Bộ luật lao động không cấm NLĐ làm việc cho nhiều NSDLĐ (trong đó có đối thủ cạnh tranh của doanh nghiệp) miễn là NLĐ “phải bảo đảm thực hiện đầy đủ các hợp đồng đã giao kết”.[3] Đồng thời, Bộ luật lao động cũng không thừa nhận quan hệ lao động sau khi các bên chấm dứt hợp đồng lao động nên điều khoản yêu cầu NLĐ không được làm việc cho đối thủ cạnh tranh của doanh nghiệp trong một khoảng thời gian trong hợp đồng lao động sẽ không có hiệu lực bắt buộc thi hành tại Việt Nam.

Trong kỷ nguyên của công nghệ thông tin và kỹ thuật phát triển hiện đại như hiện nay, QSHTT đã và đang dần trở thành tài sản quan trọng nhất của doanh nghiệp. Nhờ có QSHTT mà doanh nghiệp khẳng định được vị thế của mình trên thương trường, cũng như có được nền tảng vững chắc để phát triển hoạt động sản xuất kinh doanh không ngừng. Khi QSHTT của doanh nghiệp bị xâm phạm, đặc biệt là do người lao động sẽ dẫn đến những thiệt hại, tổn thất không thể tính toán trong “ngày một ngày hai” đối với doanh nghiệp. Vì vậy, bảo vệ QSHTT đang dần trở thành một thử thách đối với mỗi doanh nghiệp. Thay vì áp dụng biện pháp mang tính “hạ sách” cuối cùng là sa thải người lao động vi phạm, doanh nghiệp cần một chiến lược bảo vệ các sản phẩm trí tuệ của mình một cách bài bản, không ngoan. “Phòng còn hơn là chống” có lẽ sẽ là cách tiếp cận đúng đắn nhất của doanh nghiệp về vấn đề này.

LS Nguyễn Hữu Phước, Nguyễn Đức Hiếu & Vương Thanh Thúy & Trịnh Thu Hảo

Phuoc & Partners

——

[1] Điều 126.1 Bộ luật lao động 2012

[2] Điều 128.3 Bộ luật lao động 2012

[3] Điều 30 Bộ luật lao động hiện hành và Điều 21 Bộ luật lao động 2012

439 Bình luận

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  139. When I initially left a comment I appear to have clicked on the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now every time a comment is added I receive 4 emails with the exact same comment. Is there a means you are able to remove me from that service? Thank you.

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  143. After I initially commented I seem to have clicked on the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and from now on every time a comment is added I receive 4 emails with the same comment. There has to be an easy method you can remove me from that service? Kudos.

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