Hợp âm đảo và 4 công dụng

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Nguyễn Hữu Phước biên soạn

Hợp âm đảo là hợp âm không ở thể gốc (nguyên vị), tức là nốt bass sẽ không ở vị trí gốc của hợp âm nơi mà âm vực thấp nhất trong hợp âm. Trong một số tài liệu giảng dạy hòa âm thì hợp âm đảo còn có một tên gọi khác là hợp âm ghép (compound chord).

Hợp âm đảo có 4 công dụng chính. Theo đó, công dụng thứ nhất của hợp âm đảo là tạo ra hiệu ứng cho bè bass theo chủ ý của người chơi để bài hát được mượt mà, du dương, liền lạc. Đường đi của bè bass hoặc là: (i) di chuyển bước lần qua bên phải hay qua bên trái theo 7 nốt âm giai; (ii) di chuyển bước lần qua bên phải hay qua bên trái Chromatic ½ cung; (iii) di chuyển theo các nốt có trong hợp âm; (iv) lặp lại bè bass. Công dụng thứ hai của hợp âm đảo là giúp sắp xếp lại các thế của hợp âm cho dễ bấm đối với những nhạc cụ mà không thể đàn đầy đủ các nốt trong hợp âm theo sự sắp xếp từ gốc lên ví dụ như đàn guitar. Công dụng thứ ba của hợp âm đảo là cho bè bass tìm một vị trí khác để né nốt giai điệu ở các phách mạnh mà làm mất đi hòa âm. Ví dụ, nốt giai điệu là C thì dù là hợp âm Đô trưởng nhưng người chơi sẽ chuyển thành hợp âm đảo là C/G để đánh nốt G thay vì C trùng với nốt giai điệu. Công dụng sau cùng của hợp âm đảo có lẽ là làm đơn giản hóa lối viết hợp âm dài dòng trong bản nhạc. Ví dụ, thay vì viết CM7/B thì có thể viết lại là C/B.

Nói chung, có hai loại hợp âm đảo đó là: (1) Hợp âm đảo dựa trên các nốt có trong hợp âm (tiếng Anh gọi là Invested chords), ví dụ như đối với hợp âm 3 nốt chẳng hạn như Đô trưởng (có 3 nốt là C E G) thì có 2 thể đảo đó là: C/E (thể đảo 1) C/G (thể đảo 2), hay đối với hợp âm 4 nốt chẳng hạn như G7 (có 4 nốt là G B D F) thì sẽ có 3 thể đảo đó là G/B (thể đảo 1), G/D (thể đảo 2), G/F (thể đảo 3); và (2) Hợp âm đảo chỉ có các nốt có trong âm giai của bài hát nhưng không bao gồm các nốt có trong hợp âm (tiếng Anh gọi là Slash chords). Ví dụ 1: C – C/B – Am (tạo hiệu ứng bè bass đi xuống theo âm giai 1 cung). Ví dụ 2: Am – AmM7/G# – Am7/G – D/F# – F (tạo hiệu ứng bè bass đi xuống theo Chromatic ½ cung). Ví dụ 3: Em – B7/F# – Em/G – Am – C7/Bb – Em/B – B7 – C (tạo hiệu ứng bè bass đi lên theo Chromatic ½ cung). Ví dụ 4: Bb/G – Cm/G – Bb/G (lặp lại bè bass).

Có người có thể đặt câu hỏi là khi sử dụng các nốt không có trong hợp âm làm bè bass thì hợp âm đó sẽ bị thiếu nốt gốc đầu của hợp âm thì làm sao âm thanh ra giống với hợp âm đó được cũng như có một số nốt bass nằm ngoài các nốt có trong âm giai ví dụ như di chuyển nốt bass theo Chromatic nữa cung thì để trả lời cho câu hỏi này, có thể nói rằng hợp âm đảo thực ra cũng chỉ là một hợp âm khác có cùng họ hàng với 3 hợp âm chính trong âm giai mà thôi. Ví dụ: trong hợp âm C trưởng của một bài hát có vòng hợp âm có các hợp âm ở phách mạnh như sau: C – Am – F – Dm – G – Am – D7 – G – C. Để cho nốt bass di chuyển liền bậc từ nữa cung đến 1 cung trong âm giai C trưởng thì chúng ta có thể sử dụng các hợp âm lướt (passing chord) ở các phách mạnh bằng cách sử dụng hợp âm 7 át ở các thể đảo cũng như các hợp âm thoáng qua ở thể đảo theo chức năng T- S – D như sau: C – E7/B – Am – C7/G – F – A7/E – Dm – Ddim – G – E7/G# – Am – Em/G – D7sus4 – D7 G7sus4 – G7 – C.

Khi đệm piano thì để diễn tả các hợp âm đảo thì tay trái của người chơi sẽ đánh nốt bass ở thể đảo và tay phải thì bấm hợp âm gốc. Ví dụ: hợp âm C/B thì tay trái sẽ bấm nốt B còn tay phải thì bấm hợp âm C (C E G).

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